Lorentz E. Wittmers

Lorentz WittmersAssociate Professor
Edwin Eddy Endowed Professorship
Director of Graduate Studies in Physiology
Director of Animal Services Duluth campus
Graduate School Advisor Phd level

Research

Temperature regulation and metabolism with special emphasis on cold exposure and hypothermia.

Pain perception and addiction with special emphesis on smoking and smoking cessation.

Education

  • 1964 - BS degree (Chemistry and Mathematics) University of Minnesota Minneapolis
  • 1974 - MD-PhD (Physiology and Biochemistry) University of Minnesota Minneapolis

Teaching

  • Problem Based Learning Facilitator (undergraduate, graduate and medical curriculum).
  • Course director for Phsl. 8441 (Transport Processes).
  • Laboratory Instructor for Phsl. 5602 (Physiology of Organ Systems II).
  • Instructor for Med. 6728 (Respiratory Physiology), Phsl. 5601 (Physiology of Organ Systems I), Phar. 6061 (Physiology and Neurophysiology Systems), and Phsl. 3011 (General Physiology).
  • Instructor for Renal Physiology in Phsl. 5601 (Physiology of Organ Systems I).
  • Instructor for Temperature Regulation in Phsl. 5601 (Physiology of Organ Systems I), Phar. 6061 (Physiology and Neurophysiology Systems), and Phsl. 3011 (General Physiology).
  • Instructor for Physiology of Skin in Med. 6788 (Dermatology & Musculoskeletal System).
  • PBL Facilitator in Micb. 8554 (Advanced Topics in Immunology).

Publications

Publications on PubMed

Selected Papers:

Hinshaw, L. B., J. A. Vick, D. L. Nelson, L. E. Wittmers, and 0. P. Swenson. Circulatory responses to a C02 buffer (THAM) following lethal injections of endotoxin. Am. J. Physiol. 200: 751-754, 1961.

Hinshaw, L. B., J. A. Vick, L. E. Wittmers, D. M. Worthen, D. L. Nelson, and 0. P. Swenson. Changes in total peripheral resistance in endotoxin shock. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. & Med. 108: 24, 1961.

Hinshaw, L. B., J. A. Vick, M. M. Jordan, and L. E. Wittmers. Vascular changes associated with the development of irreversible endotoxin shock. Am. J. Physiol. 202: 103, 1962.

Vick, J. A., L. E. Wittmers, M. M. Jordan, and L. B. Hinshaw. The role of the intestine in endotoxin shock. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 109: 200, 1962.

Bradley, W. E., L. E. Wittmers, S. N. Chou, and L. A. French. Use of a radio transmitter receiver unit for the treatment of neurogenic bladder. Journal of Neurosurgery 19: 782, 1962.

Bradley, W. E., L. E. Wittmers, and S. N. Chou. An experimental study of the treatment of the neurogenic bladder. Journal of Urology 90: 575, 1963.

Brake, C. M., T. E. Emerson, L. E. Wittmers, and L. B. Hinshaw. Alteration of vascular responses to endotoxin by adrenergic blockade. Am. J. Physiol. 207: 149-151, 1964.

Hinshaw, L. B., F. D. Masucci, C. M. Brake, L. E. Wittmers, and T. E. Emerson, Jr. Renal vascular response to hypothermia. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 118: 623, 1965.

Hinshaw, L. B., D. A. Reins, and L. E. Wittmers. Venous-arteriolar response in the canine liver. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 118: 979-982, 1965.

Wangensteen, 0. D., L. E. Wittmers, and J. A. Johnson. Permeability of the mammalian blood-gas barrier and its components. Am. J. Physiol. 216: 719-727, 1969.

Wittmers, L. E., M. Bartlett, and J. A. Johnson. Estimation of the capillary permeability coefficients of inulin in various tissues of the rabbit. Microvascular Research 11: 67-78, 1976.

Alich, A. and L. E. Wittmers. Hydrolysis of tetrakis (acetylsalicylate)-u-dicopper(II)). Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 96: 725-727, 1980.

Wittmers, L. E., Jr., L. Fairbanks, S. Burgstahler, and R. S. Pozos. Effects of alcohol on the cardiovascular adjustments of the dive reflex in man. 7th Symposium on Underwater Physiology, July 5-10, 1980, Athens, Greece.

Wittmers, L. E., A. Alich, and A. Aufderheide. Lead in bone I: Direct analysis for lead in milligram quantities of bone ash by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 75: 80-85, 1981.

Aufderheide, A. C., F. D. Neiman, L. E. Wittmers, and G. Rapp. Lead in bone II: Skeletal-lead content as an indicator of lifetime lead ingestion and the social correlates in an archaeological population. J. of Physical Anthropology 55: 285-291, 1981.

Burgstahler, S. A., L. E. Wittmers, R. W. Petry, and R. S. Pozos. Physiologic action tremor: a basis for understanding alcohol withdrawal tremor. Currents in Alcoholism 8: 79-84, 1981.

Wittmers, L. E. and E. W. Haller. The onset and development of polycythemia in the obese mouse (C57 B1/6J ob/ob). J. of Comp. Path 92(4): 519-525, 1982.

Alich, A., V. Welsh and L. E. Wittmers. Comparison of aspirin and copper aspirinate with respect to gastric mucosal damage in the rat. J. Pharma. Sci. 72: 1457-1460, 1983.

Wittmers, L. E. and E. W. Haller. Effect of adrenalectomy on the metabolism of glucose in the obese mouse (C57 B1/6J ob/ob). Metabolism 32(12): 1093-1100, 1983.

Alich, A., V. J. Welsh, and L. E. Wittmers. Comparison of aspirin and copper aspirinate with respect to gastric mucosal damage in the rat. J. Pharmaceutical Sci. 72: 1457-1460, 1983.

Alich, A., R. Tan and L. E. Wittmers. Phenol red as volume marker in rat stomach with mucosal damage. J. Pharm. Methods II: 299-304, 1984.

Aufderheide, A. C., J. L. Angel, J. 0. Kelly, A. C. Outlaw, M. A. Outlaw, J. Rap., Jr., and L. E. Wittmers, Jr. Lead in bone III: prediction of social correlate from skeletal lead content in four Colonial American populations (Catoctin Furnace, College Landing, Governor's Land and Irene Mound). J. Physical Anthro. 66: 353-361, 1985.

Alich, A. and L. E. Wittmers. Response to: ''The Ulcerogenic Potential of Copper Aspirinate Seems to be more imaginary than real,'' J. Pharmaceutical Science 73: 1876-77, 1984.

Handler, J. S., A. C. Aufderheide, R. S. Corruccini, E. Brandon, and L. E. Wittmers. Lead contact and poisoning in Barbados slaves: Historical, chemical and biological evidence. Soc. Sci, Hist. 10: 399-425, 1986.

Somervaille, L. J., D. R. Chettle, M. C. Scott, A. C. Aufderheide, J. E. Wallgren, L. E. Wittmers, Jr., and G. R. Rapp. Comparison of two in vitro methods of bone lead analysis and the implications for in vivo measurements. Phys. Med. Biol. 31: 1267-1274, 1986.

Wittmers, L. E., R. S. Pozos, G. Fall, and L. Beck. Cardiovascular responses to face immersion (the diving reflex) in human beings after alcohol consumption. Ann. Emerg. Med. 16: 1031-1036, 1987.

Pozos, R. S., D. Israel, R. McCutcheon, L. E. Wittmers, and D. Sessler. Human studies concerning thermal induced shivering, postoperation ''shivering'' and cold-induced vasodilitation. Ann. Emerg. Med. 16: 1037-1041, 1987.

Corriecini, R. S., A. C. Aufderheide, J. S. Handler, and L. E. Wittmers. Patterning of skeletal lead content in Barbados slaves. Archaeometry 29: 233-239, 1987.

Prohaska, J. R., L. E. Wittmers, and E. W. Haller. Influence of genetic obesity, food intake and adrenalectomy in mice on selected trace element-dependent protective enzymes. J. Nutrition 118: 729-746, 1988.

Wittmers, L. E., A. C. Aufderheide, J. Wallgren, R. Rapp, and A. Alich. Lead in bone IV. Distribution of lead in the human skeleton. Archives of Environmental Health 43:6, 381-391, 1988.

Aufderheide, A. C., L. E. Wittmers, G. Rapp, and J. Wallgren. Anthropological applications of skeletal lead analysis. Am. Anthropologist. 90:931-936, 1988.

Haller, E. W. and L. E. Wittmers. Ethanol-induced hypothermia and hyperglycemia in genetically obese mice. Life Science. 44: 1377-1385, 1989.

Israel, D. J., K. M. Heydon, R.F. Edlich, R. S. Pozos, and L.E. Wittmers. Core temperature response to immersed bicycle ergometer exercise at water temperatures of 21°, 25° and 29°C. J. of Burn Care and Rehabilitation 10(4):336-345, 1989.

Wittmers, L. E. (Discussant). Proceedings, the combined effects of multiple stressors on operational performance (ed. E. K. E. Gunderson), Naval Health Research Center, Report No. 89-58, pp. 326-327, San Diego, California, 1989.

Hoffman, R. and L. Wittmers. Cold vasodilatation, pain and acclimatization in Arctic explorers. Journal of Wilderness Medicine 1:225-234, 1990.

Hu, H., T. Tosteson, A. C. Aufderheide, L. Wittmers, D. E. Burger, F. L. Milder, G. Schidlovsky, and K. W. Jones. Distribution of lead in human bone: I. Atomic absorption measurements. In Proc. Intern. Symp. on In Vivo Body Composition Studies. Plenum Press, 1990.

Wittmers, L. E., L. A. Anderson, M. M. Fall, and A. Alich. Intragastric inulin and its distribution as a measure of mucosal damage caused by aspirin and copper aspirinate in the rat. J. Pharm. Methods 24:229-239, 1990.

Aufderheide, A., L. E. Wittmers, Jr., G. Rapp, and J. Wallgren. El Uso Del Contenido de Plomo en Material Oseo Para Hipotesis Antropologicas. Eres (Arqueologia) 2 (1): 51-58, 1991.

Aufderheide, A. C., G. Rapp Jr., L. E. Wittmers Jr., J. E. Wallgren, R. Macchiarelli, G. Fornaciari, F. Mallegni and R. S. Corruccini. Lead exposure in Italy: 800 BC to 700 AD. International Journal of Anthropology 7(2):9-15, 1992.

Alich, A. A., L. E. Wittmers, Jr., L. A. Anderson, E. M. Rieschl, and P. L. Peterson. Gastric mucosal damage due to aspirin and copper aspirinate assessed by gastric mucosal potential difference changes. Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods 27(4): 245-250, 1992.

Aufderheide, A. and L. E. Wittmers, Jr. Selected aspects of the spatial distribution of lead in bone. NeuroTox 13: 809-820, 1992.

Israel, D. J., L. E. Wittmers, R. G. Hoffman and R. S. Pozos. Suppression of shivering by breath holding, relaxation, mental arithmetic and warm water ingestion. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Med. 64: 1108-1112, 1993.

Woyciechowska, J., D. J. Israel, R. G. Hoffman, and L. E. Wittmers. Application of cooling techniques during exercise in MS patients. MS Management 2(2): 25-29, 1995.

Lupandin, Yu. V., A. Yu. Meigal, L. E. Elaeva, E. W. Haller, and L. E. Wittmers. Comparative characterization of perfusion activity in spinal and intact cats. Patologicheskaya Fiziologiya I Eksperimental'naya Terapiya 4: 42-44, 1996.

Pozos, R., L. E. Wittmers, R. Hoffman, B. Ingersoll, and D. Israel. Efficiency of combinations of cooling for microclimate cooling suit design, tested in man at 100 °F with exercise. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Environmental Ergonomics, 1998.

Wittmers, L. E., C. Tabor, K. Canine, and J. Hodgdon. Use of encapsulated phase change material (EPCM) as a cooling agent in microclimate cooling garments. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Environmental Ergonomics, 1998.

Haller, E. W., L. E. Wittmers, Jr., I. V. Haller, and R. R. Regal. The obese gene is expressed in lean littermates of the genetically obese mouse (C57Bl/6J ob/ob). Am. J. Physiol. E762-E765, 1999.

al'Absi, M., K. L. Petersen, and L. E. Wittmers. Blood pressure but not parental history for hypertension predicts pain perception in women. Pain 88: 61-68, 2000.

Wittmers, L. E. Pathophysiology of cold exposure. Minnesota Medicine 84(11): 30-36, 2001.

Cartmell, L., A. C. Aufderheide, L. E. Wittmers, Jr., and C. Weems. The predictive value of cocaine hair/visceral tissue ratios in Andean mummies—a plot study. Manuscript read at the Fourth World Congress on Mummy Studies held in Juuk, Greenland September 4-10, 2001.

al'Absi, M., K. L. Petersen, and L. E. Wittmers. Adrenocortical and hemodynamic predictors of pain perception in men and women. Pain 96: 197-204, 2002.

Wittmers, L. E., A. Aufderheide, G. Rapp, and A. Alich. Archaeological contributions of skeletal lead analysis. Accts. of Chem. Res. 35(8): 669-675, 2002.

al'Absi, M. and L. Wittmers. Enhanced adrenocortical responses to stress in hypertension-prone men and women. Annals of Behav. Med. 25(1): 25-33, 2003.

Aufderheide, A. C., W. Salo, M. Madden, J. Streitz, J. Buikstra, F. Guhl, B. Arriaza, C. Renier, L. E. Wittmers, Jr., G. Fornaciari, and M. Allison. A 9,000-year record of Chagas' disease. PNAS 101(7): 2034-2039, 2004.

Aufderheide, A. C., W. Salo, M. Madden, J. Streitz, K. Dittmar de la Cruz, J. Buikstra, B. Arriaza, and L. E. Wittmers. Aspects of ingestion transmission of Chagas disease identified in mummies and their coprolites. Chungara: Revista de Antropologia Chilena 37(1): 85-90, 2005.

Abstracts:

Thuong, K., B. Hinshaw, and L. E. Wittmers. Effect of carotid sinus denervation and vagotomy in endotoxin shock. The Physiologist 3: 164, 1960.

Vick, J. A., K. C. Burns, M. M. Jordan, L. E. Wittmers, and L. B. Hinshaw. The hepato-splanchnic factor in endotoxin shock. The Physiologist 4: 128, 1961.

Johnson, J. A., L. E. Wittmers, and F. Vargas. Osmotic weight transients in perfused hearts and lungs. 67th Annual Meeting, American Institute of Chemical Engineers 117, 1974.

Cizadlo, G., G. Bown, L. E. Wittmers, and E. W. Haller. Glucose handling in the obese yellow (Ay/a) mouse. The Physiologist 21(4): 128, 1978.

Haller, E., L. E. Wittmers, Jr., G. Cizadlo, and G. Bown. Handling of an intravenous blood glucose load by the obese (ob/ob) mouse. The Physiologist 21(4): 128, 1978.

Wittmers, L. E., Jr., G. Cizadlo, E. W. Haller, and G. Bown. Stress induced hyperglycemia in the obese (ob/ob) mouse. The Physiologist 21(4): 129, 1978.

Wittmers, L. E., G. R. Cizadlo, E. W. Haller, and G. W. Bown. Measurement of respiratory exchange ratio in small animals. 31st Annual Conference on Eng. in Med. & Biol., October 1978.

Wittmers, L. E., R. S. Pozos, and K. Stocker. Structure of the microvasculature in the dorsal root ganglion of the cat. Society for Neuroscience, 8th Annual Meeting, St. Louis, Missouri, 1978.

Haller, E. W. and L. E. Wittmers. Sensitivity of the obese (ob/ob) mouse to exogenous insulin. Endocrinology 104: 170A, 1979.

Gillespie, M., L. E. Wittmers, Jr., and E. W. Haller. Hemotologic changes in genetically obese mice (C57 B1/6J, ob/ob) related to age. Fed. Proc. 39: 1037, 1980.

Alich, A., V. J. Welsh, and L.E. Wittmers, Jr. Comparative lesion-causing potential of aspirin and copper aspirinate (Tetrakis-u-acetyl-salicylato-dicopper(II)) or 267. 28th Congress, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, August 16-21, 1981.

Wittmers, L.E. and J. A. Johnson. Hydrostatic pressure estimates of pulmonary capillary filtration coefficients corrected for vascular volume changes and tissue elasticity. The Physiologist 24: 16, 1981.

Haller, E. W. and L.E. Wittmers, Jr. Ethanol, body temperature and blood glucose ian genetically obese mice. 12th Annual Medical-Scientific Conference of the National Alcoholism Forum, New Orleans, 1981.

Pozos, R. S., L.E. Wittmers, and N. Nathan. Tremor associated with relaxation-breathing procedure. Soc. for Neurosci. llth Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, California, October 18-23, 1981.

Haller, E. W. and L.E. Wittmers. The effect of alpha and beta blockade on the glucose metabolism in the obese mouse. Endocrinology 110: 342A, 1982.

Wittmers, L.E., Jr., R. S. Pozos, and E. W. Haller. Blood glucose and hormonal responses in profound hypothermia in dogs. Endocrinology 110: 342A, 1982.

Wittmers, L.E., Jr., and R.S. Pozos. Shiver of the ankle. The Physiologist 26(4): A-77, 1983.

Hempel, F. G., L.E. Wittmers, R. Dromeshauser, D. Howard, and R. S. Pozos. Submersion hypothermia in dogs. The Physiologist 26(4): A-79, 1983.

Wittmers, L.E. and E. W. Haller. Expression of the ob gene in the heterozygous lean littermates (ob/+) of the genetically obese mouse (ob/ob). 12th Annual MBRS Symposium, April 10-13, Washington D.C., 1984.

Wittmers, L.E., T. Diver and E. W. Haller. Adrenalectomy and the development of the obese-hyperglycemic syndrome in the obese mouse (C57 BL/GJ ob/ob). 12th Annual MBRS Symposium, April 10-13, Washington D.C., 1984.

Fall, G., R. S. Pozos, L. Beck, and L.E. Wittmers. Human cardiovascular responses following alcoholic consumption studied with the diving reflex. APS fall meetings, August 26-31, Lexington, Kentucky, 1984.

Shuman, M., L. Anderson, A. Alich, and L.E. Wittmers. Radioactively labeled inulin for evaluating gastric mucosal damage induced by aspirin and copper aspirinate. 1985 MARC Symposium, Washington D.C.

Mohrman, D. E. and L. E. Wittmers. Transport of sucrose and adenosine in the interstitium of the rat creamasteric muscle. Microvascular Res. 29: 241, 1985.

Friedrichs, G., L. E. Wittmers, R. S. Pozos, and L. Beck. An analysis of beta adrenergic blockade in untreated and guanethidine pretreated ducks during the dive reflex. Physiologist 28(4), 1985.

Beck, L., G. Friedrichs, P. Peterson, R. S. Pozos, and L. E. Wittmers. The effect of Hl-antihistamines on the blood pressure and heart rate in the An-autonomic duck. Physiologist 24(4), 1986.

Hoffman, R., R. Pozos, L. Wittmers, and D. Israel. Effect of cold stress on acute ethanol intoxication in humans. Paper presented at the 94th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, August 22-26, 1986.

Wittmers, L.E., P. Peterson, G. Friedrichs, R. S. Pozos, and L. Beck. The effect of Hl-antihistamines on diving and emersion responses in the An-autonomic duck. Physiologist 29(4), 1986.

McCutcheon, R., R. Hoffman, L. Wittmers, and R. Pozos. Synchronized cold induced vasodilation responses in man. The Physiologist 30: 194, 1987.

Pozos, R. S., D. Israel, L.E. Wittmers, and R. Hoffman. Organized Neurologic Responses to Acute Cold Stress. 4th Annual UA/EM-IRIEM Research symposium: Environmental Emergencies, Tmapa, Florida, February 16, 1987.

Wittmers, L.E., R. S. Pozos, and L. Beck. Pharmacology & Physiology of Cold Injury. 4th Annual UAEM-IRIEM Research Symposium: Environmental Emergencies, Tampa, Florida, February 16, 1987.

Wittmers, L.E., P. Peterson and A. Alich. Copper aspirinate vs. aspirin: mucosal damage evaluated by gastric potential difference. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 71st Annual Meeting, March, 1987.

Beck, L., L.E. Wittmers, and G. Friedrichs. Is catecholamine release from adrenal medulla tonically inhibited by activation of 2-adrenergic receptors? The Physiologist 30: 238, 1987.

Wittmers, L.E., L. Anderson, M. Zambrano, and A. Alich. Intragastric inulin and its distribution as a measure of mucosal damage caused by aspirin and copper aspirinate. The Physiologist 30: 192, 1987.

Wittmers, L.E., A. Aufderheide, J. Wallgren, G. Rapp, and A. Alich. Bone trace metal studies: What we need to know for appropriate predictive interpretation. 57th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Kansas City, Missouri, March 24-26, 1988.

Wittmers, L.E., H. E. Corcoran, M. Lalich, and R. S. Pozos. The evaluation of human stress produced by cold water immersion with and without protective garments employing measurements of urinary catecholamine excretion. Annual Meeting of FASEB, May 1-5, 1988, Las Vegas, Nevada.

Aufderheide, A., and L. Wittmers. Human bone lead contact from the First African Baptist Church Cemetery. Am. J. Physical Anthropology 78: 185, 1989.

Hu, H., A. Aufderheide, L. Wittmers, D. Burger, F. Melder, K. Jones, and T. Tosteson. Bone histomorphometry and the distribution of lead in bone: Implications for the use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in research. Presented at International Symposium on in vivo body composition studies, June 20-23, 1989, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Hoffman, R. G. and L. Wittmers. Cold vasodilatation, pain, and acclimatization in Arctic explorers. Paper presented at the 97th Annual Consortium of the American Phychological Association, August, 1989, New Orleans.

Hoffman, R. and L. Wittmers. The effect of race and acclimatization on cold-induced vasodilatation of the fingers. Paper presented at the 40th Annual Fall Meeting, The Physiologist 32(4): 203, 1989.

Wittmers, L.E., A. Alich, L. Anderson, and L. Semenchuk. The effect of gastric mucosal blood flow (GBF) on gastric potential difference (GPD). The Physiologist 32(4 ):173, 1989.

Hoffman, R.G. and L.E. Wittmers. Thermal sensation and motor skills following prolonged cold stress. 74th Annual Meeting, FASEB, April 1-5, 1990, Washington, D.C.

Wittmers, L.E. and R. G. Hoffman. Voluntary suppression of cold air-induced shivers in humans. J. of Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 4(4): A965, 1990.

Gebeck, C. J., L.E. Wittmers, D. Israel, and R. G. Hoffman. Temperature perception, motor skills, and voluntary suppression of shivering. NIGNS Minority Programs Symposium, October 11-13, 1990, Nashville, TN.

Wittmers, L.E., D. Israel, and R. G. Hoffman. The role of light exercise on the onset and intensity of shivering in cold exposed humans. Am. Physiol. Fall Meeting, October 10, 1990, Orlando, Florida.

Israel, D. J., R. G. Hoffman, and L.E. Wittmers. Reaction times and evoked potentials during moderate internal and external cooling. J. of FASEB, 1992.

Wittmers, L., R. Hoffman, and D. Israel. The effect of shiver suppression on core temperature in cold stressed man. J of Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 6(5): A1830, 1992.

Haller, E. W. and L.E. Wittmers. Expression of the obese gene in lean littermates of the genetically obese mouse (C57Bl/6J-ob/ob). J of FASEB 7(4): A607, 1993.

Hoffman, R., L.E. Wittmers, D. Israel, B. Ingersoll, J. Kersting, and H. Hofstrand. Evaluation of multiple methods of assessing core body temperature in the hypothermic dog. J of FASEB 7(3): A441, 1993.

Wittmers, L.E., D. Kozak, and A. A. Alich. The effects of moderate doses of ethanol and/or aspirin on gastric potential difference and gastric blood flow. J of FASEB 7(3): A356, 1993.

Wittmers, L., R. Pozos, D. Israel, B. Ingersoll, and R. Hoffman. Efficiency of microclimate cooling (MCC) in man during a combination of heat and exercise stress. The FASEB Journal 8(4): A64, 1994.

Woyciechowska, J., D. Israel, R. Hoffman, and L. Wittmers. Effects of body cooling on functional and cardiovascular capacities of multiple sclerosis patients. American Society of Neurorehabilitation, June 8-9, 1994, Minneapolis, MN.

Wittmers, L.E., R. S. Pozos, R. Hoffman, B. Ingersoll, and D. Israel. Evaluation of microclimate cooling in men wearing chemical protection ensembles during heat and exercise stress. The FASEB Journal 9(4), 1995.

Lupandin Y., G. Yelaeva, E. Haller, and L. Wittmers. Comparative characteristics of thermoregulatory activity of motor units in spinal and intact cats. Patologicheskaya Fiziologiya I Eksperimental'naya Terapiya 4: 42-44, 1996.

Wittmers, L.E. Cooling rates in hypothermia. Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Winter Wilderness Medicine Workshop, pp. 318-320, 1996.

Haller, E. W., L.E. Wittmers, Jr., R. R. Regal, and I. V. Haller. Further evaluation of expression of the obese gene in non-obese litter mates of C57BL/6J ob/ob mice. Presented at the XXXIII International Congress of the International Union of Physiological Sciences in St. Petersburg, Russia, July 1997.

Haller, E. W., L.E. Wittmers, Jr., and I. V. Haller. Tissue glucose uptake and metabolic rate related to age in male genetically obese mice (C57BL/6J ob/ob). The FASEB Journal 12(4): A430, 1998.

Pozos, R., L.E. Wittmers, R. Hoffman, B. Ingersoll, and D. Israel. Efficiency of combinations of cooling for microclimate cooling suit design, tested in man at 100 °F with exercise. Accepted for presentation at the 8th International Conference on Environmental Ergonomics, October 18-23, 1998, San Diego, CA.

Wittmers, L., R. A. Alich, and D. R. Quirk. Effect of caffeine on the gastric potential differene (GPD). The FASEB Journal 12(5): A736, 1998.

Wittmers, L.E., C. Tabor, K. Canine, and J. Hodgdon. Use of encapsulated phase change material (EPCM) as a cooling agent in microclimate cooling garments. Accepted for presentation at the 8th International Conference on Environmental Ergonomics, October 18-23, 1998, San Diego, CA.

al'Absi, M., K. Petersen, and L.E. Wittmers. Blood pressure and parental history for hypertension predicts pain perception in women. Annual meeting, American Psychosomatic Society, 2000.

al'Absi, M., K. Petersen, N. Crost, and L.E. Wittmers. Enhanced salivary cortisol responses to public speaking in hypertension-prone individuals. Annual meeting, American Psychosomatic Society, 2000.

al'Absi, M., T. Amunrud, K. Petersen, D. Hatsukami, and L.E. Wittmers. Short-term smoking abstinence enhances psychophysiological responses to brief cognitive challenges in habitual smokers. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 2000.

Haller, E. W., I. V. Haller, L.E. Wittmers, Jr., and R. R. Regal. Catecholaminergic mediation of the glycemic stress response in C57Bl/6J ob/ob mice. Experimental Biology 2000, San Diego, CA, April 15-18, 2000.

al'Absi, M., K. Petersen, K. Bellmont, and L. Wittmers. Sex differences in pain perception and hemodynamic responses during the cold pressor test. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 23: 164, 2001.

Petersen, K., M. al'Absi, C. France, and L. Wittmers. Acute mental challenge reduces nociceptive flexion reflex in both men and women. Psychophysiology 38: S76, 2001.

Dorscher, J. C., L.E. Wittmers, and J. G. Clevenger. A physiology problem-based learning (PBL) enrichment program for disadvantaged students. FASEB J. 16(5): A754-755, 2002.

Wittmers, L.E., M. al'Absi, and J. P. Erickson. Gender differences in the cardiovascular responses to the “cold pressor test” (CPT). FASEB J. 16(5): A1132, 2002.

Alich, A. A. and L.E. Wittmers. Gastric mucosal damage (GMD) evaluated by gastric mucosal potential difference (GMPD) in the light of gastric blood flow (GBF). FASEB J. 16(5): A790, 2002.

Erickson, J. P., M. al'Absi, and L.E. Wittmers. Enhanced heart rate response to the cold pressor task in female habitual smokers. FASEB J. 16(5): A1132-1133, 2002.

Haller, E. W., I. V. Haller, and L.E. Wittmers. Is the genetically obese mouse (C57Bl/6J ob/ob) a Pickwickian? FASEB J. 16(5): A880, 2002.

Avery, B. A. and L.E. Wittmers. Teaching to nontraditional groups. FASEB J. 17(5): A819, 2003.

Books and Book Chapters:

Influence of Breathing Hot Humidified Air on the Amplitude of Shiver. R. S. Pozos, L.E. Wittmers, P. Iaizzo, and S. Burgstahler. Water Safety Handbook, Lutheran Brotherhood, 1980.

Effect of Alcohol on the Diving Reflex. L.E. Wittmers, L. Fairbanks, S. Burgstahler, and R. S. Pozos. Water Safety Handbook, Lutheran Brotherhood, 1980.

The Nature and Treatment of Hypothermia, R. S. Pozos and L.E. Wittmers (eds.), University of Minnesota Press, 1983.

Book chapter, "In situ Hypothermia Testing", L.E. Wittmers and R. S. Pozos. In Human Performance in the Cold. G. A. Laursen, R. S. Pozos, and F. G. Hempel (eds.). Undersea Medical Society, Inc., Bethesda, Maryland.

Chapter 53, X-ray fluorescence of lead in vivo: Simultaneous measurements of cortical and trabecular bone in a pilot study. L. J. Somervaille, D. R. Chittle, M. Scott, G. Krishnan, C. G. Browne, A. C. Aufderheide, L.E. Wittmers, and J. Wallgren. In In Vivo Body Composition Studies, Institute of Physical Sciences, K. J. Ellis, S. Yasumura, and W. D. Morgan (eds.), 1987.

Book chapter, Lead Contact and Poisoning in Barbados Slaves: Historical, Chemical and Biological Evidence. J. S. Handler, A. C. Aufderheide, R. S. Corriecini, E. M. Brandon, and L.E. Wittmers. In The African Exchange Toward a Biological History of Black People. K. F. Kiple (ed.). Duke University Press, Durham and London, 1987.

Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, McGraw-Hill. Contribution topic: Hypothermia, L.E. Wittmers with R.S. Pozos.

Book chapter, Cold-Accidental Hypothermia, Chapter 4E (pp. 77-83), L.E. Wittmers. In Textbook of Primary Care Medicine, J. Noble (ed.). Mosby-Yearbook Inc., St. Louis, 1996.

Book chapter, Cold Water Immersion, Chapter 17 (pp. 531-552), L.E. Wittmers and M. Savage. In Textbooks of Military Medicine: Medical Aspects of Harsh Environments, Volume 1, K. B. Pandolf and R. E. Burr (eds.). Office of the Surgeon General, United States Army, Falls Church, Virginia, 2001.

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