Timothy Schacker, M.D. is a Professor of Medicine and Director of the Infectious Disease Clinic at the University of Minnesota. He joined the faculty in 1996. Dr. Schacker received his M.D. from the University of Minnesota in 1986 and completed a residency in Internal Medicine at the Oregon Health Sciences University and Infectious Disease Fellowship at the University of Washington in 1993. He then joined the faculty of the University of Minnesota.
Dr. Schacker has developed an internationally recognized program in translational research focused on how HIV causes immune suppression. His group recently made the discovery of a process of inflammatory damage in lymphatic tissues; the principal site of HIV infection, that results in fibrosis
of the lymphatic structures required to maintain a normal population of CD4 cells. They are testing novel therapies to prevent and/or reverse this process and slow T cell depletion in HIV and improve their reconstitution when antiretroviral is begun. He is also the principal investigator of a federally funded program of projects designed to determine barriers to HIV eradication. In addition, Dr. Schacker has established a collaboration with the Joint Clinical Research Center in Kampala, Uganda to study how constant exposure to common infections like tuberculosis, malaria, and helminthic infections affect rates of HIV transmission and progression.
Selected Recent Publications:
- Schacker TW, Collier AC, Hughes J, Shea T, Corey L. Clinical and epidemiologic features of primary HIV infection. Ann Intern Med. Aug 1996; 125(4):257-64.
- Schacker TW, Hu HL, Koelle DM, Zeh J, Saltzman R, Boon R, Shaughnessy M, Barnum G, Corey L. Famciclovir for the suppression of symptomatic and asymptomatic herpes simplex virus reactivation in HIV-infected persons. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. Jan 1998; 128(1):21-8.
- Schacker TW, Hughes JP, Shea T, Coombs RW, Corey L. Biological and virologic characteristics of primary HIV infection. Ann Intern Med. Apr 1998; 128(8):613-20.
- Schacker TW, Ryncarz AJ, Goddard J, Diem K, Shaughnessy M, Corey L. Frequent recovery of HIV-1 from genital herpes simplex virus lesions in HIV-1-infected men. Jama. Jul 1998; 280(1):61-6.
- Schacker TW, Zeh J, Hu HL, Hill E, Corey L. Frequency of symptomatic and asymptomatic herpes simplex virus type 2 reactivations among human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. J Infect Dis. Dec 1998; 178(6):1616-22.
- Haase AT, Schacker TW. Potential for the transmission of HIV-1 despite highly active antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med. Dec 1998; 339(25):1846-8.
- Schacker TW, Little S, Connick E, Gebhard-Mitchell K, Zhang ZQ, Krieger J, Pryor J, Havlir D, Wong JK, Richman D, Corey L, Haase AT. Rapid accumulation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in lymphatic tissue reservoirs during acute and early HIV infection: implications for timing of antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. Jan 2000; 181(1):354-7.
- Schacker TW, Little S, Connick E, Gebhard K, Zhang ZQ, Krieger J, Pryor J, Havlir D, Wong JK, Schooley RT, Richman D, Corey L, Haase AT. Productive infection of T cells in lymphoid tissues during primary and early human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis. Feb 2001; 183(4):555-62
- Schacker TW, Nguyen P, Gatell J, Reilly C, Martinez E, Horban A, Bakawska E, Leeuwen R, Wolinsky S, Haase A, Murphy R. Persistent abnormalities in lymphoid tissues of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients successfully treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. Oct 2002; 186:1092-7.
- Schacker TW, Nguyen PL, Beilman GJ, Wolinsky S, Larson M, Reilly C, Haase, AT. Collagen Deposition in HIV-1 infected lymphatic tissues and T-Cell homeostasis. Journal of Clinical Investigation. Oct 2002 ;110(8): 1133-1139.
- Schacker TW, Zeh J, Hu H, Shaughnessy M, Corey L. Changes in Plasma HIV-1 RNA Associated With HSV Reactivation and Suppression. J Clin Invest. Dec 2002; 110:1133-1134
- Schacker TW, Reilly C, Beilman G, Taylor J, Skarda D, Krason D, Larson M, Haase A. Amount of lymphatic tissue fibrosis in HIV infection predicts magnitude of HAART-associated change in peripheral CD4 cell count. Dec 2005. AIDS; 19(18):2169-2171.
- Schacker TW, Brenchley JM, Beilman GJ, Reilly C, Pambuccian SE, Taylor J, Skarda D, Larson M, Douek DC, Haase AT. Lymphatic tissue fibrosis is associated with reduced numbers of naive CD4+ T cells in HIV-1 infection. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 2006; 13(5):556-560.
- Petrovas C, Casazza JP, Brenchley JM, Price DA, Adams WC, Precopio ML, Schacker TW, Roederer M, Douek D, Koup RA. PD-1 is a critical regulator of virus-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation in HIV infection. Nature 2006; 203(10): 2281-2292
- Brenchley, J.M., Price, D.A., Schacker, TW., Asher, T.E., Silvestri, G., Rao, S., Kazzaz, Z., Bornstein, E., Lambotte, O., Altmann, D., Blazar, B.R., Rodriguez, B., Teixeira-Johnson, L., Landay, A., Martin, J.N., Hecht, F.M., Picker, L.J., Lederman, M.M., Deeks, S.G., Douek, D.C. Microbial Translocation is a Cause of Systemic Immune Activation in Chronic HIV Infection. Nature Medicine 2007; 12(12): 1365-1371.
- Brenchley JM, Knox KS, Asher AI, Price DA, Kohli LM, Gostick E, Hill BJ, Hage CA, Brahmi Z, Khoruts A, Twigg HL 3rd, Schacker TW., Douek DC. High frequencies of polyfunctional HIV-specific T cells are associated with preservation of mucosal CD4 T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage. Mucosal Immunol. 2008;1(1):49-58. PubMed PMID: 19079160; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2777611.
- Schacker TW. The role of secondary lymphatic tissue in immune deficiency of HIV infection. AIDS. 2008; 22 Suppl 3:S13-8.PMID: 18845917
- Estes J, Baker JV, Brenchley JM, Khoruts A, Barthold JL, Bantle A, Reilly CS, Beilman GJ, George ME, Douek DC, Haase AT, Schacker TW. Collagen deposition limits immune reconstitution in the gut. J Infect Dis. 2008;198(4):456-64. PubMed PMID: 18598193; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2683984.
- Estes JD, Haase AT, Schacker TW. The role of collagen deposition in depleting CD4+ T cells and limiting reconstitution in HIV-1 and SIV infections through damage to the secondary lymphoid organ niche. Semin Immunol. 2008 Jun;20(3):181-6. Epub 2008 Jul 2. Review.PMID: 18595731
- Schacker TW, Bosch RJ, Bennett K, Pollard R, Robbins GK, Collier AC, Gulick RM, Spritzler J, Mildvan D; AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Measurement of naive CD4 cells reliably predicts potential for immune reconstitution in HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 May 1;54(1):59-62.PMID: 20182359