Abdominal imaging covers an array of imaging modalities including plain films, CT, MRI, gastrointestinal fluoroscopy, genitourinary imaging, and some ultrasound. Residents gain experience throughout the four years at all three institutions. Residents are involved in all aspects of imaging interpretation and in performing diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Rotations range from months primarily focused on cross sectional imaging or fluoroscopy, at Fairview University Medical Center and the VA, to more flexible "float" months at Hennepin County Medical Center where a resident may perform all the fluoroscopic examinations one day and interpret cross sectional imaging or ultrasound examinations on other days.
Basics of cancer screening and diagnostic work-ups including tissue sampling, using mammography, breast ultrasound, breast MRI, stereo, US and MRI guided breast biopsies, US axillary lymph node biopsy, wire localizations, ductography, aspiration/drainage and sentinel node injections. Residents may rotate to other major breast imaging centers in the Twin Cities Metro area.
Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
In Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, the resident will actively participate in a wide variety of angiographic and interventional procedures. The residents' responsibilities as members of the IR team include:pre-procedural evaluation, procedure performance, patient follow-up after the interventional and/or angiographic procedure, and documentation as appropriate. Discussion of each individual case is stressed, and extensive teaching files and other resources are available for study and consultation. Residents will have numerous opportunities to be primary operators on procedures starting during the first year with increasing complexity as experience, interest, and ability develop.
Residents gain experience in evaluating musculoskeletal disorders first through interpretation of plain films, followed by more advanced imaging with CT and MR. Ultrasound is also utilized at times, particularly in evaluation of the tendons in the upper extremity. Residents are also introduced to both therapeutic and diagnostic bone and joint procedures while rotating at the VA and Fairview Riverside. Residents begin their Musculoskeletal Radiology experience in their first year at Hennepin County Medical Center and at Fairview Riverside, the latter providing an initial exposure to musculoskeletal MR. Additional MR training occurs at the VA, and on subsequent Riverside rotations in the third or fourth year. At Hennepin County Medical Center, musculoskeletal imaging may be interpreted by residents either on cross sectional imaging or dedicated musculoskeletal rotations.
The radiology resident will typically spend four months in neuroradiology. The resident is involved in interpreting CT and MRI examinations, as well as performing myelograms, cerebral and spinal cord angiography, and other spine and head and neck procedures. The Neuroradiology section participates in several weekly conferences. The section maintains an extensive teaching case file for the neuroradiology case conferences given to the residents.
Residents learn to interpret PET imaging for oncologic surveillance and for neuroimaging. Other nuclear medicine examinations routinely performed include cardiac imaging and stress tests; scintigraphic evaluation of the skeletal system for cancer, infection, or inflammation; physiologic testing of the gastrointestinal and urinary tract; specialized tumor imaging and detection; and endocrinologic testing, lung scanning, and sentinel node detection. The residents are expected to interview patients, review the examination, and correlate with prior imaging studies when reporting the case. Residents also gain experience with therapies such as 89-Sr and 131-I. The residents participate in patient education with regard to radiation safety and potential complications following the administration of radionuclides.
Pediatric Radiology is based at the University of Minnesota Amplatz Children's Hospital on the West Bank campus. UMACH is a tertiary care hospital with a full range of pediatric and surgical specialties, residents, and fellows. It is known for its pioneering work in solid organ and bone marrow transplant, and has very active inpatient and outpatient services. The residents work side by side with the faculty who are always available for consultation, performing and interpreting all types of pediatric radiology examinations and procedures. There are numerous conferences which the residents are encouraged to attend.
Physics: Clinical Support, Teaching, and Research
The program emphasizes active participation by the residents in preparation for the American Board of Radiology certification exam. Residents receive physics training in the form of didactic lectures and demonstrations by the physics section of the Department of Radiology. During the first year of residency, there is a series of lectures, which cover the fundamental operating principles of film based imaging, radiation safety, video systems, nuclear medicine, computed tomography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The lecture series incorporates approximately 55 hours of didactic lectures on physics and radiobiology. Additional review sessions for the physics section of the Board Exam are also held.
Residents are exposed to diseases of the chest in a wide variety of clinical settings throughout the residency. Residents are involved in all aspects of plain film, CT, and high resolution CT interpretation, as well as reading MRI/MRA chest and Cardiac CT and MR. They learn to perform diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. There are weekly interdisciplinary conferences in interstitial lung disease, thoracic oncology, and pulmonary nodule management.
Residents gain experience in general and vascular ultrasound at all three primary teaching institutions. The majority of pediatric, breast, pelvic and obstetric ultrasound occurs at the University of Minnesota Medical Center/Amplatz Children's Hospital and Hennepin County Medical Center (HCMC). Prostate imaging/intervention occurs at the VA Medical Center. Otherwise there is comprehensive ultrasound coverage at all three sites. Residents will have ample opportunity to develop scanning technique, and perform procedures under ultrasound guidance. There is complete ultrasound technologist coverage during regular and on-call hours at all of the teaching institutions.